The Basics of the Net Neutrality Debate

Department of Telecommunication has approved net neutrality rules in India that ban blocking, throttling and zero-rating internet data with some exception for critical IoT services and specialized services. The Report which is submitted by TRAI to the Department of Telecommunication is now implemented by the Government.

As The Wire reports, the new rules prevent “any form of discrimination of interference” with data, including “blocking, degrading, slowing down, or granting preferential speeds or treatment to any content.” But they don’t apply to “Critical IoT services” or “Specialized services”, including autonomous vehicles and remote surgery operations – which The Wire says TRAI head R.S Sharma compares to ambulances that can legally disobey traffic rules, or in this case, get prioritized status to maintain services quality.
All the Internet Service providers (ISP’s) needs to renew their licenses with new guidelines according to the Telecommunication Department of India. ISP’s that violate these rules could have their licenses canceled.

In 2016, Facebook started a campaign with the name of the FREE BASIC INTERNET which gave this wealthy company an unfair advantage over local startups. These types of the campaign are not possible after the implementation of these new NET NEUTRALITY Rules. The ISP’s could not favor any of the websites by charging them.

In the end, though, Facebook’s campaigning has come to nothing. The TRAI’s newly-instated “Prohibition of Discriminatory Tariffs for Data Services Regulations” states that providers cannot “offer or charge discriminatory tariffs for data services on the basis of content being accessed by a consumer” – that is to say, they can’t offer content for free. In a press release, the TRAI notes that its decision was “guided by the principles of net neutrality,” and that its end goal is “to ensure that consumers get unhindered and non-discriminatory access to the internet.” Whether or not it achieved this goal is sure to be debated in India and around the world.
The Telecom Regulatory of India effectively banned Facebook’s Free basics program from the country, ruling that the system and others like it violate the principles of net neutrality.

Throttling is also banned in these new Net Neutrality rules in India – “Throttling is a process of minimizing the bandwidth on any website which results in slow loading of the website”.

India is welcoming the New Net Neutrality rules, hope to see effective changes in the Internet Regulatory.
This rule is a good example for the world on Net Neutrality.

The Value of Cooperative Learning

As teachers, we tend to present material to our classes in the form of the results of our discipline’s work. We collect the data, do the reading and synthesize the material into a finished product. Students, in their assignments and exams, are generally expected to demonstrate that they have learned what we as scholars have already found out. Rarely are they provided with the opportunity to make those discoveries themselves. And yet it is potentially very rewarding to offer students the opportunity to use raw materials themselves, giving them “hands on” experience doing the work of the discipline. In specific courses, instructors do offer undergraduate students problem-based learning opportunities in which students collect, analyze and critically evaluate data and ideas, synthesize their findings and then propose answers to complex problems.

For a number of years, both the Chemistry and the Biology Departments have offered courses for undergraduates in which students actively participate in on-going faculty research projects or occasionally develop original research projects. In Chemistry, students most often work on an offshoot of a larger problem that has been described by a research professor, and they work on the problem for at least two semesters. Although students rarely work on their own research idea, they may do something that is in addition to or an extension of the research problem described by the professor. In Biology, undergraduates also work primarily on a discrete piece of a larger project that is going in a lab. In both Chemistry and Biology, time, complexity of the field and financial resources prohibit most undergraduates from undertaking independent research. Many undergraduate researchers, however, do valuable parts of a larger research project and their findings enable them to be second authors, and occasionally first authors, on research publications.

Students interested in doing research obtain a list from the professors who take undergraduate students in their labs and their specific area of research. Students then interview selected professors to see if there is space in the lab and to find out what they would do in the research. Once they have chosen a lab, students often must demonstrate their competence in using techniques which are standard in that lab. Research professors say they are glad to have undergraduates assisting with research because they are often as skilled as the first year graduate Research Assistants.

The students who are planning to go to graduate school are encouraged to take Biology and Chemistry, many students take the course who are going into fields such as medicine and dentistry. Although students who have actively participated in undergraduate level research go to medical school, they tend to take more advantage of research opportunities in medical school, and I think a lot of them head into medical research when they might not have considered medical research as a career option. A former student, who is now a doctor, says that the research experience gave her skills to know what questions to ask when evaluating new products from drug company representatives or articles in medical journals describing new treatments, new protocols and new products. She feels that she evaluates those things totally differently than she would have if she had not taken the research course.

Problem solving is a learning strategy that encourages students to analyze and think critically by integrating and synthesizing the facts and ideas they have learned in order to solve or propose possible solutions to an authentic problem, or one for which a solution does not already exist. Here is an example of a group problem solving strategy that an instructor uses in a Microbiology course of ninety students:

Because of your expertise in Microbiology you are hired as a consultant to a large mining company. They wish to use bacteria to clean up (and possibly profitably extract minerals from) their mine tailings (left over materials). They own many types of mines. From which minerals do you think you could find bacteria which would do this? Would it be easier to find bacteria which would reduce or oxidize minerals?

On most Fridays during the semester, the students of the Microbiology class break into small cooperative learning groups within the large classroom to develop group solutions to complex problems like this one. The problems are specifically related to the previous lectures and text readings and frequently require the practical application of theories and ideas. This problem, for example, follows lectures and readings on oxidation reduction reactions and on how bacteria get energy from redox reactions.

The problems are described in the syllabus so students can prepare and come to their groups with some kind of individual solution which also might include an area of difficulty or a point they need to discuss.

Cooperative learning groups differ from discussion groups in at least one important way: the cooperative learning group is focused on accomplishing a group task such as, in this case, discussing, deciding on and writing up a group solution to a problem. In this process, students become responsible not only for their learning but also for the learning of other students in the group. Science is currently a cooperative activity and most scientists now work in groups.

A secondary, but equally important, reason for using cooperative groups to address problems in a large class is that these groups provide the logistics for weekly interactive discussion and writing in a large lecture class. While the instructor can read eleven group papers each week, reading ninety individual papers each week would not be feasible.

Using a simple questionnaire in which students check off science courses they have taken, we ensure that each group has a balance of students with the different areas of expertise required to solve the complex problems. For example, each group has at least one student who has taken a number of Physics courses, a student who has taken Biochemistry, a student enrolled in the optional lab for this course, and students with other relevant science courses. This method of distribution prevents seniors with a strong science background from being in one group and sophomores with a more limited science background, in another group.

The groups meet in class on Fridays to discuss a specific problem. Each student is expected to come to their group with some kind of written solution as well as problems they may have encountered in addressing the problem. The teacher and the TA go around to the groups and check off that each student in the group has prepared something in writing. If a student is not prepared, he or she may not participate in the discussion. This simple checking encourages students to prepare ahead of time and prevents the group from depending on one or two people to do all of the work. In the groups, the students discuss and point out the flaws in different proposed solutions. After the group discussion is over, one person writes up the collaborative solution over the weekend calling several members of the group to make sure that the paper accurately reflects the group decision. This “scribe” position must rotate each week. Occasionally an entire group may meet over the weekend to discuss and work on the problem further.

The teacher grades the group papers on a scale of one to ten and he/she does not grade the group papers competitively. Instead each group can earn up to eighty points that will count as 20% of their total grade for the course. Students count eight of the eleven problem scores. This flexibility also allows the teacher to drop an entire problem if it does not work out well in the groups. At the end of the semester, students choose their best eight scores on the eleven problems. The teacher also encourages creative thinking and risk taking in problem solving by providing the opportunity for students to earn bonus points. On any of these questions, students can draw a line across the bottom of the page and write “bonus” and then they can put any creative, off-the-wall ideas that they come up with. This will not count in the answer to the regular question but it will not count off if it’s totally off-the-wall and absolutely incorrect. Bonus points are given to the whole group and are added after the final grades.

A major conceptual emphasis in the course “Philosophy of science” is the process of thinking about science. Students learn the perspective of how a conceptual framework, such as theory or set of theories, may determine how observed facts are interpreted and explained. Students take into account the current theories and assumptions that make up the framework of a problem as they study and propose possible solutions to a problem. Here’s generally how the course works: the teacher begin a topic by giving students a summary handout on the topic. For example, the handout, “Cancer in Adolescents and Young Adults,” includes these sections: (1) some meanings and definitions of descriptive terms; (2) a list of known information or current evidence on causes of human cancers; (3) descriptions of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy; (4) a summary of differences between normal and cancer cells, and (5) important questions to consider for class discussion. In these handouts, the instructors lay the foundation of the topic by summarizing what is known, what the reasonably specific questions are where the answers are uncertain and the hypotheses that people argue about in the area. These handouts give everyone a common foundation regardless of their science background.

In class discussions and writings, students are asked to analyze the topic and think of the next problem that needs to be solved if they were going to undertake research in this area. In the class, students read short papers and discuss articles with an emphasis on identifying what the article is really saying and explaining the ideas presented. In these research articles, students read to understand what is known and what is not known and to note where the clues are for the next step. Students also learn to deal with contradicting evidence either by broadening their hypothesis or explanation to include it or by coming up with a good reason to disregard it. The point is for students to synthesize a series of individual ideas and theories from the research and develop a comprehensive picture or explanation of what may be happening. In scientific research, each person contributes a tiny bit and together it adds up, rather than there being a sudden great revelation that changes everything. Students learn this as they piece together the various research findings on a problem. The course shows how people discover things and gives students the delight of solving something and the course is about the thrill of discovery rather than just the joy of learning.

Will Rising Interest Rates Threaten Our Fledgling Economic Recovery?

SAN DIEGO, California – Consumer vote with their wallets and so do the markets. It is quite astonishing to watch the bond market and interest rates nowadays. In less than two months, since the beginning of January till the end of February, the 10-year Treasury Note yield had increased by a stunning 54.9% percent, from 0.91% to 1.41%, after briefly hitting 1.52% on February 28th. In the meantime, treasury yields in other industrialized countries are way lower, including Germany, which has a negative yield of -0.25% on its 10-year Treasury Bond.

While some economists argue that this seismic increase in the U.S. Treasury yields is caused by the improving economy, the strongest underlying factor seems to be a fear of an upcoming inflation in the United States attributed to current administration’s appetite to print (borrow) and spend money, including the additional $2 trillion in new economic stimulus package. This is on the top of the money, which was borrowed and pumped into the economy in 2020 by the prior administration, including $1 trillion, which is still unspent.

As the late Senator Everett M. Dirksen used to say “”A billion here, a billion there, and pretty soon you’re talking real money.” Except we are talking about trillions here. How much money is a trillion dollars? In short it is: $1,000,000,000,000 or a thousand billions. Our entire national debt back in 2000 was just around 6 trillion dollars, now it is over $27 trillion and rapidly growing. Of course higher interest rates also mean higher cost of servicing our national debt.

Just to put things in perspective, our U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is defined as the total monetary or market value of all finished goods and services produced within our borders, was about $20.9 trillion in 2020. Our total annual federal income tax revenue is approximately $3.5 trillion or about 16% of our GDP. So, our national debt far exceeds our national income. Do we see a problem here?

Printing loads of fiat money as a long-term economic “solution” never brings good lasting results. If in doubt, look at Venezuela. Once the wealthiest country in Latin America, Venezuela is now one of the poorest ones, with inflation so high that its money is not worth the paper it is printed on. How bad is the inflation there? A mere 2,685% in 2020.

For an average person this kinds of numbers are so astronomical that they make little sense. But what the rising interest rates mean for us, the regular folks? Certainly a higher cost of living, including higher mortgage rates (home loans, equity lines of credit), which affect housing expenses, higher cost of consumer credit (credit cards, car loans), higher cost of student loans, and the list goes on. It will also cause higher prices on everyday goods and services. Have you seen the gas prices lately?

The increasing cost of credit will most certainly affect the housing market, putting a downward pressure on its prices and affordability. The housing market is critical to the overall health of the economy as it affects many jobs, consumer spending and the overall wealth of our nation.

One may contend that the housing market is due for a correction anyway as the price increases during the pandemic were both steep and unsustainable. That might be true, however, higher interest rates will make this correction much more severe and longer-lasting.

So, just when we started to see some signs of fledgling economic recovery, another presumably well-intended stimulus, or at least its huge size and timing can be counterproductive and harmful. The focus should be on wisely using the unspent “old” stimulus money, which Congress had already approved last year, keeping the interest rates low and re-opening the economy while the vaccination efforts gain momentum and the Covid infections and deaths go down.

The Basic Details About Law Enforcement Careers

The law enforcement is a wide field of career options, the Bureau of Statistics of the United States estimates that the field will keep on growing steadily until the year of 2018, and it will increase by 10% for law enforcement professionals. The usual career that requires 4-year degree course in the law enforcement is the Police Department as well as the Security Enforcement Agencies.

Investigators and detectives – they are acting for the review evidences, interview the witnesses and follow the leads for solving the crimes committed within their jurisdiction. In spite of the glamorous reputation, being a detective is not that easy. Hours of work are long, the nature of job is dangerous and the salary is usually low. Detective ranking is achieved through climbing the steps like the police forces.

Parole officers – they are the type of law enforcers who are working with the parolees report as they are being conditionally released from the prison. They have the backgrounds in administration or law enforcement and they should be knowledgeable with the basic-moderate of their computer skills. They have to be ready to testify against or favor to their parolees in the court proceeding if needed.

FBI and CIA – they are 2 of the best enforcement arms of the United States Government. Career seekers that obtain the security clearance can find stable employment within the government, and they can be at the secret service or even military police.

Prosecutor and Defense Attorneys – they can enter the field after they have completed the 3-year graduate level of the law schooling programs. As the degree of law enforcement is not being required for the law schools admission, they can still provide a competitive edge that are needed for earning an acceptance to any law school.

These potential experts must pass the background investigation that includes inquiries to their working history, financial history and criminal history. For those individuals who want to pursue their law enforcement degree must be prepared for the participation of several interviews with their choice of agency. They need to practice for answering the interview questions that are difficult.

This is a rewarding field that has many advantages for the ones who are choosing it as their career. Landscape of this career is augmenting everyday as the advancement of good opportunities are many.

Latest Fashion News: Style Watch, Steal That Style!

Many celebrities launch one of kind fashion styles! We are here to introduce to you the latest fashion news and ideas, some amazing styles, and ways you can get them to look stylish and fashionably elegant, just like a celebrity!

The clothes you wear reflect the mood you are in and the one you want to project. They represent the person you want to be even if sometimes, you feel very different from that image!

Stop feeling that you are not fashionable! Stop feeling that your clothes are not into style! Instead enjoy every second of fashion because now you can be in style like any of the celebrities you want or you like!

  • Adopt an all-white look, and rock simplicity with straight hair! You can try styling an A line skirt with a white top, it can be a cute style.
  • Go all Stefani mode and adopt a red suit! Add some style to it by adopting a crop top under the suit’s blazer!
  • Go classy with shorts, and adopt high wasted shorts with a white classic shirt and a nice pair of high heels shoes.
  • Adopt skinny jeans with a white shirt, and guess what? A cute and colorful oversized blazer! It will give you a cute style and edgy look.
  • Be unique by adopting flare pants and reviving the sixties, adopt these pants with a nice crop top and maybe a nice retro hairstyle for long and short hair.
  • Adopt the 90s fashion style in any way you hear desires. The chokers are back and this time they are looking amazing! You can adopt any type of choker necklace you want, whether a plain piece of ribbon, or a tattoo like choker, with all the black details. And for the edgy style lovers, you can pick a rock studded choker, or what we also call, spiked choker necklace. Or you can go for plaids as they have never been more in style than they are now! It’s over every piece of clothing for women and men. This fashion trend or style is somewhat universal as anyone who adopts it falls in love with it! Adopt scrunchies in your hairstyle design, as they will add volume in the Tina Turner technique.

What will your fashion identity be from now on?

Learning English Language in Cheap Ways

Think of English vocabulary as the bricks of the language and grammar as the mortar that hold those bricks together, without the mortar the bricks can come tumbling down! There is a common impression that learning English grammar is painful, but it is a lot easier than many other languages.

When you begin to learn English, speaking and building up your vocabulary is more important than worrying about correct grammar. However, as you progress you need to incorporate more grammar into your learning program.

Here are some tips to learn English in an inexpensive ways:

1. Learn English by reading, listening, studying, and asking questions; practice what you learn by speaking and writing.

2. Dictation is an excellent way to improve your listening and spelling skills. Have a friend read a few paragraphs from a book or a newspaper. Write down what you think you hear. Compare what you have written with the actual text.

3. Make friends with native English speakers.

4. If you have your sights set on the US, look for literacy programs in your area — they are often free, learn a trade and do your best to acquire English-speaking friends.

5. Find a native individual who not only speaks English, but can teach it. Learn grammar and vocabulary using visual, auditory and spoken methods. Spiral the cycle and keep it interesting.

6. Reading will increase your understanding of English and add to your vocabulary, but it’s talking that will increase fluency.

7. Read Simple English in your spare time, such resources can be found at the Simple English Wikipedia and books written for young children to encourage yourself, if the contents are too difficult to understand you can easily lose interest.

8. Learn about the cultures of English-speaking countries.

9. As a teenager, live for a year in an English speaking country. This is much less expensive if you do barter – accept someone in your house in trade for living in theirs.

10. Never stop getting new information in English and keep practicing writing and speaking.

11. If you can dream in English, this means that you have succeeded in becoming a fluent English speaker, but not that your English is perfect.

12. Think in English when you have learned it well. Translation in your brain can become confusing after certain points.

13. Get a good dictionary. If you need to, a dictionary to translate between your first language and English is best.

14. Take note of your mistakes when doing your work and make sure you don’t repeat them.

15. Read aloud, so you are aware of how you speak.

16. Focus on pronunciation when you speak, since there are many silent letters in English as in French.

17. Learn the grammar with careful study. A teacher may be best for this.

18. Make sure you know the basics. If you don’t even know the basics, you want to improve.

19. Remember you need to exercise what you’ve learned. With practice, you can learn to speak the English language very well. Practice everyday by checking your pronunciation, and learning a few new words.

Learning English requires a lot of practice and determination, so don’t try to learn everything at once, but don’t ever give up!

Fashion Style and Rules – Dos and Don’ts

Where do fashion rules come from? Is there a fashion board that decides what we should and should not wear, or what ‘goes together’ and what looks bad? Not hardly. The rules and lists we read to guide our fashion choices are produced by fashion columnists and editors as part of the business of selling magazines and drawing an online readership. Take this into account when making your choices, and consider the rules more like guidelines than absolutes.

In fact, to be truly fashionable you should be breaking the rules occasionally. An overly fussy and cautious approach to fashion makes you look like a follower rather than an innovator. Instead, try breaking some of the rules below to add some twist to your style.

Your colors should not clash: What a limiting belief! People often think that there are colors that you should wear together and colors that “clash” and should never be combined. This narrows your choices considerably. Instead, why not indulge in unusual combinations from time to time?

Stay away from the extreme end of clashing; there are colors that do look horrible together. But, colors that don’t seem to naturally ‘go together’ can be visually stunning when worn in combination. Most fashionable dressers play with combinations that stop just short of horribly clashing.

Save bright jewelry for nighttime: This rule doesn’t make sense, if you think about it. Most jewelry isn’t harmed by sunlight. Why set aside some for strictly nighttime use?

Have fun with some of your brighter pieces by wearing them during the day on occasion.

Play up eyes or lips, but not both: Many women believe that you can wear striking eye makeup but then need to have a neutral lip, or if you wear a colored lipstick you should be very light with the eye makeup. But there is no reason for this caution.

Choose colors from the same color family – you don’t want a cool-toned lip and a warm-toned eye or the face will feel disjointed. Then, apply with a slightly lighter hand than you would if you were only playing up one or the other. You’ll be surprised with how flattering the results can be.

Ribbons, Trimmings and Fashion Accessories – Building Your Own Fashion Style

Have you ever wanted to get an effortless, sophisticated and chic look while avoiding the high sheer lace, chiffon or light fabric’s price tags?
Classy grown-up and sophisticated garment accessories trimmings can easily fit in with your personal style and persona when they are trims and accessories that have been choosing for the fashionable comfort and the self-assurance that they can provide.

The fashion industry always gives us envy to embrace fashion. Its weapon is celebrity’s red carpet, model cat walks or fashion weeks in fashionable European capitals all well talked about in fashion magazines…

If you are convinced that fashion accessories and haberdashery will make you noticed and set of that gossip and admiration murmurs then you would probably love to know where to get the chance to build up your own fashion style.

This interesting thing is that no matter where you are buying your outfit, embellishment ribbons and haberdashery chiffon can always help you blend the subtitles of tone in your wardrobe. You just need to mix and match them with an appropriate sense of what’s in vogue, style and elegance.

We all know that sometimes, it’s difficult to divert our attention from things, especially when its fashion related, that made us truly envious. This magnetic experience usually happens in the street when we are watching people or reading fashion magazines or even when reading about celebrities fashion gossip.

Hopefully, there are many ways to dress, feel and look as fashionable and confident wearing as if we sere wearing those same outfits that make us so jealous… and at an appropriate price tag! Fashion is about self-confidence. They are no other recipe for that.

Your fashion conscious people might want to be personal and creative while wearing your Cocktail dress at summer parties. Look glamorous, sensual and truly sensational, and of course feel every glance around you.

This is a history repeating itself: fabrics, trimmings, accessories, etc. are made to keep things very intense and interesting in world of fashion.
So get to know what to wear this summer; try and experience the best ways of embellishing at a non extortionate price tag.

Stores Where You Can Find Your Jewelry Watches

Jewelry watches represent commitment, love and thoughtfulness. It might take a while to find the perfect look within your price range, but in the end, you’ll be glad you selected this no-fail gift. Jewelers are more than happy to help you select the perfect item, while providing you with warranties and repair information before you buy.

While you may find good deals online, there are several stores that will guarantee the authenticity of their jewelry watches and provide you with an optimal service plan.

Jewelry watches come in all shapes, sizes, colors, bands, jewels, metals and price ranges. It’s best to begin shopping with a game plan. Have an idea what you want to spend and which brands you like. Generally, the sales associates are more than happy to help you find the perfect gift.

The benefit of going with a retailer instead of shopping online is that you can guarantee authenticity of your product because you don’t want to end up purchasing a fake Rolex. You can also get a better warranty with accessible customer service and you don’t have to pay for shipping.

There are some brands that specialize in reasonably priced jewelry watches. For example, Seiko, Fossil, and Guess offer some elegant choices in the $100 or less range. Macy’s Department Store shoppers can often find them on sale, priced down by as much as $100!

Also, they frequently run sales that include a bonus gift, such as a diamond accent pendant for only $49 with your watch purchase. The great thing about Macy’s is that their warranties are amazing!

For instance, you could buy a women’s Fossil bracelet watch with a sparkling Swarvoski crystal and stainless steel band, a diamond marker and Mother of Perl inlay for $57 and you’ll receive an 11 year warranty! In the next price bracket, Kay’s and Zales Jewelers has a really nice selection of Seiko, Citizen and Bulova men’s jewelry watches with diamond accents for under $200.

For the big spenders, Tiffany and Company has become a symbol of high taste. When women see the box, they know something extraordinary is inside. Starting at $1,000 and going all the way up to $54,000 for an 18-karat white gold and diamond piece, these ones are designed to impress. Zales carries men’s and women’s Movado watches in the $2,000 – $5,000 range.

If you’re looking for the extreme in high-end ones, you will have to visit New York City or Toronto to find an authorized Rolex dealer in North America. Of course, Omega, Tag Heuer, Gucci and Breitling watches may be easier to find at your local jeweler with some styles available in the low thousands.

Online browsing is a great way to figure out what you’re looking for prior to going into a store and meandering around. Get an idea of jewelry watches styles, brands and price ranges you prefer. Then watch your loved one’s eyes light up at the thoughtfulness you’ve displayed!

Basic Wardrobe Planning is Easier If You Know Your Fashion Style – 3 Benefits & 8 Fashion Archetypes

Basic wardrobe planning may be more cohesive if you figure out your fashion style type. Some types of fashion, offered with the over-50 woman in mind, are:

  • arty or bohemian
  • sophisticated
  • sporty
  • suburban
  • professional
  • simply elegant (or elegant simplicity)
  • trendy or trend-setter.
  • romantic or sexy.

I call these fashion styles fashion archetypes, because they embody deeper needs and behaviors of our personalities. Expressing one of the types of fashion is a way of becoming the star of our own lives.

As we age, we may have to reassess our fashion style: The suburban mom takes a job and needs a professional wardrobe; the lawyer retires from her professional career and takes up her dream of landscape painting. The suits have to go.

Here are three advantages of basic wardrobe planning around a type of fashion that suits your personality and lifestyle:

  • Efficiency shopping and pulling an outfit together, even on the fly.


    If you decide your fashion style is sporty, you’re less likely to splurge on that emerald green, ruffled jabot blouse that you will only wear once a year. After all, it hardly goes with the khaki and charcoal cotton slacks that are the core of your comfortable daily uniform.

  • Spending limited wardrobe budgets on what will give us the most use. Basic wardrobe planning involves figuring out what types of fashion we most need. It makes sense to add a black skirt to our professional wardrobe when we understand we’ve got 18 tops and three jackets to team with it. Shopping for an item we might have spurned as too ordinary becomes a fashion triumph.
  • Feeling well-dressed and comfortable on every occasion. The best fashion advice for women is to decide what feels good and looks good on you. Your personal fashion style emerges from that. What looks and feels good changes over time. Periodic reassessment is essential.

Here’s a summary of eight fashion archetypes.


The arty look is colorful, quirky, sometimes ethnic, and always fearless. Natural fabrics are preferred. A snowy white poet’s shirt, an embroidered jacket that goes from work to art gallery reception, and a luxurious handbag are suggestions for the bohemian wardrobe.


The corporate executive wife and the charity fund-raiser are some typical lifestyle choices of women who express their inner creativity with sophisticated fashions. Wardrobe suggestions are a Chanel suit, a silk dress, gold cloche earrings and a diamond pendant necklace.


This fashion style is tailored. A blazer jacket is a must. It can be worn with a variety of durable, washable cotton pants, such as khaki, a good choice for the active, outdoorsy woman. Sweaters and sweater sets work well. A silk T-shirt adds sophistication. Avoid fussy prints and ruffles.


Suburban fashion goes from town to country with ease. She visits a corporate office in tailored slacks, a fuchsia shirt, an elegantly tailored long jacket, and pumps appropriate for lunch at a chic restaurant. Then she’s off to a soccer game. The pumps are replaced by rubber-soled loafers, the jacket with a sweater. Pick garments for their versatility.


The professional fashion archetype loves suits – pantsuits for every day, skirt suits for court, a tuxedo suit for formal occasions, and a tailored dress when a skirt is a must. Choose suits and tops so you can mix-and-match for maximum versatility. Add an embroidered vest for pizzazz.


If you’ve asked yourself What Would Jackie [Kennedy Onassis] Do?(book by Shelley Branch and Sue Callaway) Or What Would Audrey [Hepburn] Do? (by Pamela Keough), this is your fashion archetype. Stock your closet with solid colors and garments with simple lines such as the A-line, princess, and cheongsam dresses. Shop at designer consignment shops to achieve this look on a budget.


The older woman who adopts the latest fashion trends may end up looking as if she is desperately clinging to her passing youth. For best effect, add fashion trends to classic costumes. For example, an outrageous jacket, with lots of bling and some feather accents, might be worn with simple black or white beneath. Experiment. Every fashion mistake can be changed tomorrow.


Flirty grows up after 50 or risks appearing as if life has passed her by. Ruffles, but not frills; clinging fabrics that hug curves without being skintight; and decollete that knows when to quit are hallmarks of the romantic fashion archetype. Strive for glamor and sensuality using texture and a bit of bling.

In summary, knowing and expressing your fashion archetype starts with identifying the fashion styles that fit your lifestyle and personality. Buy clothes that look and feel just right. Basic wardrobe planning is a snap when we build our clothes collection with our personal type of fashion in mind.